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What are Neurological Disorders?
Neurological Disorders are illnesses or injuries that affect the central nervous system,
the peripheral nervous system (peripheral nerves - cranial nerves included), or the
autonomic nervous system. We have included a link to Neuroscience for Kids. This
site explains the nervous system in everyday terms for our younger audience.
Listed below are several major conditions out of the more than 600 neurologic
- Behavioral/cognitive syndromes - Traumatic Brain Injury, Amnesia, Epilepsy,
and Dementia are common forms.
- Headache disorders - Migraine, cluster headache and tension headache and
- Neurodegenerative disorders - A condition in which cells of the brain and spinal
cord are lost. Includes: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).
- Cerebrovascular disease - such as stroke.
- Sleep disorders - Narcolepsy, Night Terrors, Restless Leg Syndrome.
- Cerebral palsy
- Spinal cord disorders - Tumors, Infections, Trauma, Malformations
- Speech and Language Disorders
- Multiple Sclerosis
Source: AMA's Current Procedural Terminology,
Revised 1998 Edition.
- The Brachial Plexus is responsible for
innervation of the upper limb. Therefore,
lesions of the plexus can lead to severe
- The Musculocutaneous Nerve arises from the
lateral cord of the brachial plexus. The nerve is
usually involved in an upper brachial plexus
- The Median Nerve is a nerve that runs down
the arm and forearm. Injury of this nerve at a
level above elbow joint results in loss of
supination and a decrease in flexion of the
hand at the wrist joint.
- the Genitofemoral Nerve originates from the
upper part of the lumbar plexus of spinal
nerves. Its roots are L1 and L2 (lumbar). It
divides into two branches, the femoral branch
supplies skin anterior to the upper part of the
femoral triangle and the The genital branch:
- In Males, it travels through the
superficial inguinal ring, along with the
spermatic cord, and supplies the
cremaster and the scrotal skin.
- In females, it ends in the skin of the
mons pubis and labia majora
- The Obturator Nerve is responsible for the
contraction of the skin of the thigh, adductor
muscles lower of extremity.
- the Ulnar Nerve is a nerve which runs from the
shoulder to the hand. It is the only exposed
nerve in the human body. The Ulnar nerve can
be trapped or pinched. Pinching of the nerve
often causes tingling symptoms in the little and
ring fingers. Often such pins and needles
sensations can be caused by sleeping wrong
on your arm, but sometimes the problems last
for days. In severe cases, surgery is performed.
- The Common Peroneal Nerve lies between
the tendon of the Biceps femoris and lateral
head of the Gastrocnemius muscle, winds
around the neck of the fibula, between the
Peronæus longus and the bone, and divides
beneath the muscle into the superficial
peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) and
deep peroneal nerve (deep fibular nerve).
Trauma to the nerve can result in a condition
called foot drop, where dorsiflexion of the foot
is compromised and the foot drags during
walking, and sensory loss to the dorsal
surface of the foot and portions of the anterior,
- The Deep Peroneal Nerve supplies muscular
branches to the Tibialis anterior, Extensor
digitorum longus, Fibularis (Peronæus) tertius,
and Extensor hallucis longus (propius), and an
articular branch to the ankle-joint.
- The Superficial Fibular Nerve (superficial
peroneal nerve) innervates the Peronei longus
and brevis and the skin over the greater part of
the dorsum of the foot.
- The Brain Cerebellum Controls Fine
Movement Coordination, Balance and
Equilibrium Muscle Tone
- The Spinal Cord is a thin, tubular bundle
nerves that is an extension of the central
nervous system from the brain and is
enclosed in and protected by the bony
vertebral column. The main function of
the spinal cord is transmission of neural
inputs between the periphery and the
- The Intercostal Nerves are distributed
chiefly to the thoracic pleura and
abdominal peritoneum, each pursues an
independent course without plexus
- The Subcostal Nerve is larger than the
others; it runs along the lower border of
the twelfth rib, often gives a
communicating branch to the first lumbar
nerve, and passes under the lateral
- The Lumbar Plexus is formed by the
loops of communication between the
anterior divisions of the first three and the
greater part of the fourth lumbar nerves.
- the Sacral Plexus is a nerve plexus
emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-
S4), and which provides nerves for the
pelvis and lower limbs.
- The Femoral Nerve supplies quadriceps
& anteromedial thigh, & then continues
on as the saphenous nerve. Femoral
nerve dysfunction is a loss of movement
or sensation in the leg (peripheral
neuropathy) caused by damage to the
- The Sciatic Nerve (also known as the
ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve that runs
down the lower limb. It is the longest
single nerve in the body. The sciatic
supplies nearly the whole of the skin of
the leg, the muscles of the back of the
thigh, and those of the leg and foot.
- The Saphenous Nerve is the largest
cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve
and is purely sensory, with branches of
the L3 and L4 nerve root levels
contributing to the nerve. Complaints
associated with saphenous nerve
entrapment include medial knee and/or
leg pain after prolonged walking or
standing and pain in the distribution of
the saphenous nerve following
- The Tibial Nerve is a branch of the sciatic
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