Medical Social Work
Rehabilitation Management, LLC
What are Neurological Disorders?
Neurological Disorders are illnesses or injuries that affect the central nervous system,
the peripheral nervous system (peripheral nerves - cranial nerves included), or the
autonomic nervous system.  We have included a link to
Neuroscience for Kids.  This
site explains the nervous system in everyday terms for our younger audience.

Listed below are several major conditions out of the more than 600 neurologic
diseases.  
  • Behavioral/cognitive syndromes - Traumatic Brain Injury, Amnesia, Epilepsy,
    and Dementia are common forms.
  • Headache disorders - Migraine, cluster headache and tension headache and
    seizure disorders.
  • Neurodegenerative disorders -  A condition in which cells of the brain and spinal
    cord are lost. Includes: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).
  • Cerebrovascular disease - such as stroke.
  • Sleep disorders - Narcolepsy, Night Terrors, Restless Leg Syndrome.
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Spinal cord disorders - Tumors, Infections, Trauma, Malformations
  • Speech and Language Disorders
  • Multiple Sclerosis
Source: AMA's Current Procedural Terminology,
Revised 1998 Edition.
  • The Brachial Plexus is responsible for
    innervation of the upper limb. Therefore,
    lesions of the plexus can lead to severe
    functional impairment.
  • The Musculocutaneous Nerve arises from the
    lateral cord of the brachial plexus.  The nerve is
    usually involved in an upper brachial plexus
    palsy
  • The Median Nerve is a nerve that runs down
    the arm and forearm. Injury of this nerve at a
    level above elbow joint results in loss of
    supination and a decrease in flexion of the
    hand at the wrist joint.
  • the Genitofemoral Nerve originates from the
    upper part of the lumbar plexus of spinal
    nerves. Its roots are L1 and L2 (lumbar). It
    divides into two branches, the femoral branch
    supplies skin anterior to the upper part of the
    femoral triangle and the The genital branch:
  1. In Males, it travels through the
    superficial inguinal ring, along with the
    spermatic cord, and supplies the
    cremaster and the scrotal skin.
  2. In females, it ends in the skin of the
    mons pubis and labia majora
  • The Obturator Nerve is responsible for the
    contraction of the skin of the thigh, adductor
    muscles lower of extremity.
  • the Ulnar Nerve is a nerve which runs from the
    shoulder to the hand.  It is the only exposed
    nerve in the human body. The Ulnar nerve can
    be trapped or pinched.  Pinching of the nerve
    often causes tingling symptoms in the little and
    ring fingers. Often such pins and needles
    sensations can be caused by sleeping wrong
    on your arm, but sometimes the problems last
    for days. In severe cases, surgery is performed.
  • The Common Peroneal Nerve lies between
    the tendon of the Biceps femoris and lateral
    head of the Gastrocnemius muscle, winds
    around the neck of the fibula, between the
    Peronæus longus and the bone, and divides
    beneath the muscle into the superficial
    peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) and
    deep peroneal nerve (deep fibular nerve).  
    Trauma to the nerve can result in a condition
    called foot drop, where dorsiflexion of the foot
    is compromised and the foot drags during
    walking, and sensory loss to the dorsal
    surface of the foot and portions of the anterior,
    lower-lateral leg.
  • The Deep Peroneal Nerve supplies muscular
    branches to the Tibialis anterior, Extensor
    digitorum longus, Fibularis (Peronæus) tertius,
    and Extensor hallucis longus (propius), and an
    articular branch to the ankle-joint.
  • The Superficial Fibular Nerve (superficial
    peroneal nerve) innervates the Peronei longus
    and brevis and the skin over the greater part of
    the dorsum of the foot.
  • The Brain Cerebellum Controls Fine
    Movement Coordination, Balance and
    Equilibrium Muscle Tone
  • The Spinal Cord is a thin, tubular bundle
    nerves that is an extension of the central
    nervous system from the brain and is
    enclosed in and protected by the bony
    vertebral column. The main function of
    the spinal cord is transmission of neural
    inputs between the periphery and the
    brain.
  • The Intercostal Nerves are distributed
    chiefly to the thoracic pleura and
    abdominal peritoneum, each pursues an
    independent course without plexus
    formation.
  • The Subcostal Nerve is larger than the
    others; it runs along the lower border of
    the twelfth rib, often gives a
    communicating branch to the first lumbar
    nerve, and passes under the lateral
    lumbocostal arch.
  • The Lumbar Plexus is formed by the
    loops of communication between the
    anterior divisions of the first three and the
    greater part of the fourth lumbar nerves.
  • the Sacral Plexus is a nerve plexus
    emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-
    S4), and which provides nerves for the
    pelvis and lower limbs.
  • The Femoral Nerve supplies quadriceps
    & anteromedial thigh, & then continues
    on as the saphenous nerve.  Femoral
    nerve dysfunction is a loss of movement
    or sensation in the leg (peripheral
    neuropathy) caused by damage to the
    femoral nerve.
  • The Sciatic Nerve (also known as the
    ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve that runs
    down the lower limb. It is the longest
    single nerve in the body.  The sciatic
    supplies nearly the whole of the skin of
    the leg, the muscles of the back of the
    thigh, and those of the leg and foot.
  • The Saphenous Nerve is the largest
    cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve
    and is purely sensory, with branches of
    the L3 and L4 nerve root levels
    contributing to the nerve. Complaints
    associated with saphenous nerve
    entrapment include medial knee and/or
    leg pain after prolonged walking or
    standing and pain in the distribution of
    the saphenous nerve following
    quadriceps exercise.
  • The Tibial Nerve is a branch of the sciatic
    nerve.
Medical Social Work Rehabilitation
Management, LLC.
1733
2 Farmington Rd.
Livonia, MI 48152
Ph: 734-513-4100
Fax: 734-513-0900